T independent antigen (TI)
T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.
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