A refractory material or refractory is a heat-resistant material: that is, a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack, most commonly applied to a mineral that retains strength and form at high temperatures.. ASTM C71 defines refractories as "...non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 1,000 °F (811 K; 538 °C)." Refractory materials are used in furnaces, kilns, incinerators, and reactors. Refractories are also used to make crucibles and moulds for casting glass and metals and for surfacing flame deflector systems for rocket launch structures. Today, the iron- and steel-industry and metal casting sectors use approximately 70% of all refractories produced.


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