Know-how (or knowhow) is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication). Know-how is often tacit knowledge, which means that it is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalising it. Dubickis and Gaile-Sarkane (2017) states that the performance of know-how transfer is affected by accuracy of the stated aim, applied teaching, learning and assessment methods and both internal and external environment characteristics of the stakeholders involved in the process. It is also often referred to as Street smarts, and a person employing their street smarts as being Street Wise. The opposite of tacit knowledge is explicit knowledge. In the context of industrial property (now generally viewed as intellectual property or IP), know-how is a component in the transfer of technology in national and international environments, co-existing with or separate from other IP rights such as patents, trademarks and copyright and is an economic asset. When it is transferred by itself, know-how should be converted into a trade secret before transfer in a legal agreement.


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